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5 since in the Cathedral of Durham, and now preserved in the chapter library of that city. Such were the richly-wrought " serviettes sur filez d or " of Margaret of Austria. In our own country the earlier laces, such as they were, were defined by the word " passament," 3 spelt in a variety of ways — a general term for gimps, braids, and laces, whether of gold, silver, silk, cotton, thread, or worsted. etc., but no mention of the word " dentelle." It does, however, occur in an inventory of an earlier date, that of Marguerite de France, sister of Francis I., who, in 1545, paid the sum of " vi. ,s For this information, with a collection of specimens tlic author lias to thnnk Madnme of Gcfle. In an adjoining case of the same collection are some splendid altar- cloths of ancient raised Spanish point, said to have been worked by the Swedish nuns previous to the suppression of the monasteries. The same Warrant contains an order to deliver u for the use and wearing of our ri-xht dere daughter tho Mury," together with a black velvet gown, scarlet ftttticoat, etc., "a nounve of lace for her kyrtel," and a thousand "pynncs." Digitized by Google ENGLAND TO QUEEN ELIZABETH. ** No lease than crimson velvet did him grace, All garded and regarded with gold lace." 8amud Rovdand$. " I do forsake these 'broidcrcd gardes, Aud all tho fashions new." Tho Queen, in King Cnmbisir, cir. 23 Under forfeiture of the same shirt and a fine of 40 shillings. Heathcoat's patent having expired, all Nottingham went mad. From tho "Histoire du Tulle ot des Dentelles m, Hind and Draper took out one in France, ami 1S37, in England. The French, by adopting what is technically termed eight " motives," produce their lace of a finer make and more complex pattern.
The embroidery, in beauty, baffles all description. Autre servyette de Gibes (Cadiz) ouvree d'or, d'argent sur fillez et bordee d'or et de gris. These two last-mentioned objects are of the fourteenth century. 1 Lace, French, Denfelle ; German, Spitzen ; Italian, Mcrlctto, Trina ; Genoa, Pizzo : Spanish, Encaje ; Dutch, Kanten. livres pour soixante aulnes, fine dantelle de Florence pour mettre a des co Uetz." 8 After a lapse of twenty years and more, among the articles furnished to Mary Stuart in 1567, is " Une pacque de petite dentelle 9 and this is the sole mention of the word in all her accounts. of apparel, stuftk, &a, provided for the coronation of Rich. A small escutcheon constantly repeated on the pattern of the most ancient speci- mens has the semblance of a water-lily leaf, the emblem of the Stures, leading one to believe they may have been of Swedish fabric, for many ladies of that illustrious house sought shelter from troublous times within the walls of the lace-making convent of Wadstena. 265 and well-beloved Cosyn the King of Romayne "—Maximilian, who was made Knight of the Garter. Every * Mechlin net was disused in 1819, from its too great elasticity. The Calais lace is an admirable copy of the square-grounded Valenciennes, and is the staple trade of the manufacture.
As early as the fourteenth century it was termed " nun s work ;' M and even now, in secluded parts of the kingdom, ancient lace is styled by that name. It is from that open-work embroidery, which in the sixteenth century came into such universal use, that we must derive the origin of lace, and, in order to work out the subject, trace it through all its gradations. Several lost their senses altogether, and some, after cherishing visions of wealth as in the olden time of alchemy, finding their schemes abortive, sank into despair and committed suicide." Such is the history of the bobbin net 12 invention in England. w Progressive Value of a square yard of plain cotlon bobbin net.
• " His secretary, William of Poicticw, states that, " the English women are eminently kkilful with the needle, and in weaving of gold." Digitized by Goog NEEDLKWOKK. The design portrays the apostles, with angels and 53 Randle Holme, in M The School Mistris Terms of Art for all her Wujs of Sewing." has, 44 A Samcloth, vulgarly, a Sampler." 24 In the same collection, part of which lias been since bought for the Museum, are specimens of rezeu U d or, or network with patterns worked in with gold thread and coloured silks. Scarce twenty years since an expiring relic of this art might be sometimes seen on the white smock-frock of the English labourer, which, independent of elaborate stitching, was enriched with an insertion of cut- work, running from the collar to the shoulder crossways, like that we see decorating the surplices of the sixteenth century. Certain it is that the term " lacez," ren- dered in the English translation of the Statutes 2 as "laces," implying braids, such as were used for uniting the different parte of the dress, appears long before the article of which we are now treating came into use. In the accounts of Henry IL of France, and his queen, we have fre- quent notices of " passement jaulne dantelle des deux costez," 6 " passement de soye incarnat dentelle* d'un coste," 7 etc. The broader 17 kinds, of which we give »" Some nre twice the witltlt (if Fi-f. There is also a sort of plaiting used us a fringe, in the style of the Genoese Macrame, from the ends of a small sheet which the peasants spread over their pillows. The Dalecarlian women do not make a trade of lace-making, they merely work to supply their own wants. In addition to this collar, there is preserved at the Royal Klads- kammar at Stockholm a blood-stained shirt worn by Gustavus at the battle of Dirschau, the collar and cuffe trimmed with lace of rich geome- tric pattern, the sleeves decorated with " seaming " lace. The year 1823 is memorable for the " bobbin net fever." Mr. At the International Exhibition of 1862, Notting- ham exhibited Spanish laces, most faithful copies of the costly pillow- made Barcelona ; imitations of Mechlin, the brode and picot executed by hand ; Brussels needle point ; Caen blondes, and Valenciennes rivalling those of Calais ; also the black laces of Chantilly and Mirecourt. Be that as it may, the " opus Anglicanum " was sought for by foreign prelates, and made the subject of papal correspond- ence. After a timo, however, lace-making became general throughout the town and neighbourhood, and was known to the laity previous to the dissolution of Wadstena— a favoured convent which survived the rest of the other monasteries of Sweden. Morgan, who wrote in 1588, declares the saflron-tinted shirts of the Irish to contain from 20 to 30 ells of linen. The Irish, always lovers of pomp and show, early used laco at the interments of the great, as appears from an anecdote related in a letter of Mr. 7 At the end of the last century there lived at Oeaden, near Waterford, a lady of the name of Powe r, lineal descendant of the kings of Munster, and called the Queen of Crcaden. The bonier of her coif was of th.3 finest Irish-made Brussels lace; her jacket of the finest brown eloth, trimmed with gold lace her petticoat of the finest scarlet cloth, bordered with a row of broad gold lace : all her dress was of Irish manufacture. Bone lace had never in any quantity been imported from England. 9 Prizes given to the children to the amount of 34/. In consequence of the large quantity fabricated, after the lapse of a few years, the Si)ciety, in 1773, found themselves compelled to put some bounds to their liberality. 2 His attempt so far succeeded that, by means of the » See p. - An opt 11 stitch on stockings, called the "Derby rib." hail been invented by Jedediab Strutt. " Point net " was afterwards improved, and the " barley-corn " introduced : *' square " and " spider net " appear in succession. TOr j e c [q^ punti tagliati, punti gropposi, punti in rede, et punti in Stuora. Stamp, in Yenetia, per Mathio Pagan in frezzaria, in le case novo Tien per insegna la fede." 16 ff. In Ve- netia per Mathio Pagan in Frezaria al segno della Fede, M. 14 Nor did our Anglo-Saxon kings ever fail, in their pilgrimage to Home, to bestow on the sovereign Pontiff garments richly embroidered in gold and precious stones. This custom of trimming the seams of bed -curtains with n lace indented on both sides was common throughout Europe. of Mary Stuart, 158(5, one of the Vasquiuea 'jackets) is described, - Autre de eatin noir ikscottppcu a deseouppemie den- telcs." Digitized by Google 24 HISTORY OF LACE. 44 Send up," writes Gustaf Vasa, in a familiar letter 14 to his Queen Margaret, " the lace passeraent made for me by Anne, the smith's daughter, at Upsala ; 1 want it : don't neglect this." 1 * The style of Wadstena lace clianged with the times and fashion of the national costume. No wonder they are de- scribed — " With plcatos on pleatea they plaited ore, As thick as pleatea may lie." 3 It was in such guise the Irish appeared at court before Queen Elizabeth, 1 and from them the yellow starch of Mrs. The Irish, however, produced the dye not from saffron, but from a lichen gathered on the rocks. O'Halloran : — " The late Lord Glandore told me," he writes, " that when a hoy, under a spacious tomb in the ruined monastery at his seat, Ardfert Abbey (Co. Ho drew it forth, and it proved to bo a shroud of Flanders lace, the covering of some person long since deceased." In the beginning of the eighteenth century a patriotic feeling arose among the Irish, who joined hand in hand to encourage the productions of their own country. Not ** to weare any shirt, smock, kerchor, bendel, neckcrchour, mockct, or linen enppe colored or dyed with saf Tron," and not to use moro than scvin vnnlsof linen in their shirts or smocks. No prizes are given for any lace exhibited at less than lis. the yard, and that only to those not resident in the city of Dublin, or within five miles of it. A sketch of the history of lace would be incomplete without a few words on bobbin net and niachino lace, manufactures which have risen to so much importance both in England and France, and have placed lace within the reach of all classes of society. But with all these improvements machinery had not yet arrived at producing a solid net, it was still only knitting, a single thread passing from one end of the frame to the other ; and if a thread broke the work was unravelled ; the threads, therefore, required to be gummed together, to give stiffness and solidity to the net. Cuthbert, removed from his coffin some years w Ethclwynno, a noble lady, is recorded to Iiave enlisted him in her service, to design the ornaments of a stole, and Dunstan sat daily in tho lady's bower superintending her work, together with tho maidens. This work, up to a very late period, formed the great delight of pro- Digitized by Googl CUTWORK. Jean Godard, in his poem on the Glove,* alluding to this occupation, says : — " Uue famine gun lee ojuvre en tupinserio En raizenox deliez et toulo lingerie Elle file — ello eoud ot fiiit pawement Dc toutes lea fiuwons. If, on the other hand, intended for a pall, death's-heads, cross-bones, and tears, with the sacramental cup, left no doubt of the destination of the article. At the various bathing-places you may see the young ladies working as industriously as if for their daily sustenance ; they never purchase such articles of decoration, but entirely adorn their houses by the labours of their own hands. Od." In the pictures, at Hampton Court Palace, of Queens Mary and Elizabeth, and another of Francis II., all as children, their rufia are edged with a very narrow purl. After serving his apprenticeship, he settled at Nottingham, and while occupied in putting together stocking and net machines, gave his attention to im- proving the Mechlin net frame. Lacy, he took out a patent for fourteen years for his new and highly ingenious bobbin net machine, which he called Old Loughborough, after the town to which he then removed. This happy state of affairs did not, however, continue long. These pattern books being high in price and difficult to procure, teachers of the art soon caused the various patterns to be reproduced in " sam cloths," 23 as samplars were then termed, and young ladies worked at them diligently, as a proof of their competency in the arts of cutwork, lacis, and rezeuil, much as a dame-school child did her ABC in the country villages of our own day. As late as the year 1850, a splendid cutwork pall still covered the coffins of the fisher tribe when borne in procession through the streets of Dieppe. Passement do fine aoie noire dentelle d'un oostc." » '* Passtment blauc," " grise," also occur. It was by a collar of this holesom, worked in silk and gold, that young Gustaf Erikson was nearly betrayed when working as a labourer in the larn of Rankhytta, the property of his old college friend, Anders Petersen. summer caps, much starched, as a shelter against the sun. w Bobbin net " was so named because the threads are wound upon bobbins. Heathcoat began by making net little more than an inch in width, 7 and afterwards succeeded in producing it a yard wide.
Royal and noble ladies plied their needles for the adornment of the u St rut t . 9 M Plus de delivrc* uno pacque de petite dentelle qui est « stez cousu ensemble pour mettre sur les couturesdes ridcaux des ditz litz con tenant 80 aunes."— Bee. We find like entries in the accounts of Henry IV.'s first queen. Those made at present are of the single or double » "Wtulii U'i M Past and Present." (Forroch Xu. 16 In the detailed account of the trousseau furnished to his daughter, there is no men- tion of lace ; but the author of " One Year in Sweden " has seen the body of his little granddaughter, the Princess Iwabella, daughter of John III., as it lies in the vault of Strengnas, the child's dress and Bhoes literally covered with gold and silver lace of a Gothic pattern, fresh and untarnished as though made yewlenlay. 255 ground, both black and white, fine, but wanting in firmness. Be that as it may, the govern- ment prohibited its use, and the shirts were reduced in quantity to six 1 " Essay on the Drew of the Early Irish." J. Swift was among the first to support the movement, and in a pro- logue he composed, in 1721, to a play acted for the benefit of the Irish weavers, he says: — ** Since waiting- women, like exacting judea, * Hold up the price* of their old brocades, We'll dress in manufactures mado at home." Shortly afterwards, at a meeting, he proposed the following resolu- tion : — " That the ladies wear Irish manufactures. Twenty per cent, will be given on the value of the lace, provided it Bhall not exceed 500/. The Society do not, however, withdraw the annual premium of 30/. To remedy this evil, the warp or chain machine was invented, uniting the knitter's and the weaver's mechanism.